IRA Style Guide

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Reference lists, style

With very few exceptions, the Association follows the APA style of citing and listing references (see APA pp. 189–222, Appendix 3-A, “Elements and examples of references in APA style”). Examples of many of the most common reference types are present in this list:


Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Allington, R.L., & Walmsley, S.A. (1995). No quick fix: Rethinking literacy programs in America’s elementary schools. New York: Teachers College Press; Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Alvermann, D.E., Moon, J.S., & Hagood, M.C. (1999). Popular culture in the classroom: Teaching and researching critical media literacy. Newark, DE: International Reading Association; Chicago: National Reading Conference.

Anderson, R.C., Hiebert, E.H., Scott, J.A., & Wilkinson, I.A.G. (1985). Becoming a nation of readers: The report of the Commission on Reading. Washington, DC: National Institute of Education.

Anderson, R.C., & Pearson, P.D. (1984). A schema-theoretic view of basic processes in reading comprehension. In P.D. Pearson, R. Barr, M.L. Kamil, & P.B. Mosenthal (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 255–291). New York: Longman.

Atwell, N. (1987). In the middle: Writing, reading, and learning with adolescents. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.

Bakhtin, M. (1981). Discourse in the novel. In M. Bakhtin, The dialogic imagination: Four essays (M. Holquist, Ed.; C. Emerson & M. Holquist, Trans.; pp. 259-422). Austin: University of Texas Press.

Barr, R., Kamil, M.L., Mosenthal, P.B., & Pearson, P.D. (Eds.). (1991). Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2). White Plains, NY: Longman.

Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., Hamilton, R.L., & Kucan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Cady, B. (2005, June/July). Ohio creates new career path with Literacy Specialist Endorsement. Reading Today, 22(6), 1, 6.

de Saussure, F. (1986). Course in general linguistics (C. Bally & A. Sechehaye, with A. Reidlinger, Eds.; R. Harris, Trans.). La Salle, IL: Open Court. (Original work published 1916)

Fountas, I.C., & Pinnell, G.S. (1999). Matching books to readers: Using leveled books in guided reading, K–3. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Fountas, I.C., & Pinnell, G.S. (2001). Guiding readers and writers: Grades 3–6. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. York, ME: Stenhouse.

International Reading Association. (1999). High-stakes assessment in reading (Position statement). Newark, DE: Author.

International Reading Association & National Council of Teachers of English. (1996). Standards for the English language arts. Newark, DE; Urbana, IL: Authors.

Kamil, M.L., Mosenthal, P.B., Pearson, P.D., & Barr, R. (Eds.). (2000). Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Krol-Sinclair, B. (1996). Connecting home and school literacies: Immigrant parents with limited formal education as classroom storybook readers. In D.J. Leu, C.K. Kinzer, & K.A. Hinchman (Eds.), Literacies for the 21st century: Research and practice (45th yearbook of the National Reading Conference, pp. 270–283). Chicago: National Reading Conference.

Moore, D.W., Bean, T.W., Birdyshaw, D., & Rycik, J.A. (1999). Adolescent literacy: A position statement for the Commission on Adolescent Literacy of the International Reading Association. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. (Note that this is an exception to the rule for titling position statements.)

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

National Research Council. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Ogle, D. (1986). K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. The Reading Teacher, 39(6), 564–570.

Palincsar, A.S., & Brown, A.L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2), 117–175.

Pearson, P.D., Barr, R., Kamil, M.L., & Mosenthal, P.B. (1984). Handbook of reading research. New York: Longman.

Pressley, M. (2000). What should comprehension instruction be the instruction of? In M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3, pp. 545–562). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

RAND Reading Study Group. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R&D program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Rosenblatt, L. (1978). The reader, the text, the poem: The transactional theory of the literary work. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Stanovich, K.E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(4), 360–407.

Topping, K. (1997). Electronic literacy in school and home: A look into the future. Reading Online. Retrieved December 28, 1997, from

U.S. Department of Education. (1999b). Getting America's students ready for the 21st century: Meeting the technology literacy challenge. Retrieved January 30, 1999, from

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds. & Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1986). Thought and language (A. Kozulin, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Original work published 1934)

Weiner, E.J. (2005/2006). Keeping adults behind: Adult literacy education in the age of official reading regimes. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49(4), 286–301.

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