Style Guide: T

Table

  • a table, the tables (generic)
  • the Table (if there is only one in the book, article, or chapter)
  • Table 2 (as title, with numeral)

Tables/Figures

Is it a figure or a table?

APA 6th, p.125

“Tables usually show numerical values or textual information arranged in columns and rows. A figure may be a chart, a graph, a photograph, a drawing, or any other illustration or nontextual depiction.”

______________________________

Whether it’s a figure or a table depends primarily on one thing: author intent. Is it data for the reader to take away from the text, or is it an illustration to enhance a reader’s understanding of the text? Data = table; illustration = figure. But here’s where it gets tricky: Data are not always numbers, and illustrations are not always photographs/scans/drawings/charts. You must understand the author’s intent in providing the element in order to determine whether it’s data (a table) or an illustration (a figure). Therefore, always begin your assessment of the element by carefully reviewing the text callout. Consider the following examples.

We are often asked how many books are needed for a good classroom library. Table 6 illustrates there is no readily agreed upon formula for an adequate number of books in a classroom library.

Table 6. Recommendations for Number of Books in Classroom Libraries

Number of Books per Student Total Collection Size
  • 7 (IRA, 1999)
  • 8 (Fractor et al., 1993)
  • 10–12 (Kelley & Clausen-Grace, 2007)
  • 200–1,000 plus (Routman, 2003)
  • 300–600 (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001)
  • 700–750 for all primary grades and 400 for upper grades (Allington & Cunningham, 2007)
  • 1,500–2,000 (Reutzel & Fawson, 2002)

A table presents data in columns and rows, although the data is not always numerical (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. Sample Table Presenting Numerical and Textual Information

Number of Books per Student Total Collection Size
  • 7 (IRA, 1999)
  • 8 (Fractor et al., 1993)
  • 10–12 (Kelley & Clausen-Grace, 2007)
  • 200–1,000 plus (Routman, 2003)
  • 300–600 (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001)
  • 700–750 for all primary grades and 400 for upper grades (Allington & Cunningham, 2007)
  • 1,500–2,000 (Reutzel & Fawson, 2002)

Note that the same information is presented first as a table then as a figure, depending on the author’s intent per the text callout. In the first example, the reader is being supplied with data to take away from the text, while in the second example, the reader is being provided with an “illustration” of what a table is—in this case, it isn’t the information in the columns and rows that the reader needs but rather a visual that is important for the reader’s understanding of the text.

Common word-based tables in IRA publications include lists (e.g., recommended resources, procedures). These often provide descriptive rather than comparative information in a one-column, one-row format.

Reading text sets (see Table 4 for resources on text sets) on a particular topic can help students understand that texts are never neutral and that they are constructed by particular people with particular goals and motivations.

Table 4. Resources to Learn More About Text Sets

Harste, J.C., Leland, C., Lewison, M., Ociepka, A., & Vasquez, V. (2000). Supporting critical conversations in classrooms. In K.M. Pierce (Ed.), Adventuring with books: A booklist for pre-K–grade 6 (12th ed., pp. 507–512). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Leland, C., Harste, J.C., Ociepka, A., Lewison, M., & Vasquez, V. (1999). Exploring critical literacy: You can hear a pin drop. Language Arts, 77(1), 70–77.

Short, K.G., Harste, J.C., & Burke, C.L. (1996). Creating classrooms for authors and inquirers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Text-based figures in IRA publications can be just as confusing for editors as text-based tables. Examples include sample worksheets or rubrics that a teacher uses in the classroom. This gets confusing when, instead of providing us with a scanned sheet as an illustration, the author provides us with the text arranged in rows and columns, making us question whether it’s really a figure or a table. Again, look at author intent. Is it data for the reader or a visual to enhance the reader’s understanding of text? Consider the following examples.

Session 2 involves revisiting the book for a second time, this time focusing on discussing the storyline of the book as represented by the illustrations. During this session, Lee had the children work with a partner to fill out a response prompt sheet (see Figure 9).

Figure 9. Response Prompt Sheet

Why do you think people should or should not read White Wash? What questions do you have about this story?
What surprised you about this book? Write one or two writing topics from your own life that connect with this story.
Write one or two statements from someone whose perspective is represented in this book. Write one or two statements from someone whose perspective is not represented in the book.

Session 2 involves revisiting the book for a second time, this time focusing on discussing the storyline of the book as represented by the illustrations. During this session, Lee had the children work with a partner to fill out a response prompt sheet (see Figure 9).

Figure 9. Completed Response Prompt Sheet

Why do you think people should or should not read White Wash?

  • It shows that there are some people that do some really bad things.
  • You should read it because it teaches you to stick up for others. It has kid power in it!

What questions do you have about this story?

  • If the girl were white, would the Hawks be mean to her?
  • Why did she stay in her room for so long?

What surprised you about this book?

  • That the bad people would paint her face white.
  • I was surprised that they let go of the brother first.
  • Everything!

Write one or two writing topics from your own life that connect with this story.

  • My brother is always mean to me and beats me up.
  • When I got stitches on my chin, I looked like I had a beard. I had to go to school like that.
  • Being mad

But, change the author intent, text callout, and presentation of the same information just a bit, and we have a table.

Lee had the children work with a partner to fill out a response prompt sheet; student responses show great variation in comprehension levels (see Table 1).

Table 1. Response Prompt Results

Prompt Student Responses

Why do you think people should or should not read White Wash?

  • It shows that there are some people that do some really bad things.
  • You should read it because it teaches you to stick up for others. It has kid power in it!

What questions do you have about this story?

  • If the girl were white, would the Hawks be mean to her?
  • Why did she stay in her room for so long?

What surprised you about this book?

  • That the bad people would paint her face white.
  • I was surprised that they let go of the brother first.
  • Everything!

Write one or two writing topics from your own life that connect with this story.

  • My brother is always mean to me and beats me up.
  • When I got stitches on my chin, I looked like I had a beard. I had to go to school like that.
  • Being mad

Note that in reprints, we run figures/tables as originally labeled, regardless of whether the labeling is correct.

tape record (v.)

tape recorder

tape recording

T-Chart

TC/P = Thinking Classroom/Peremena

TCP/IP = Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

teacher researcher (no hyphen)

teacher’s aide

teacher's edition (but student edition)

technology-enhanced

telephone numbers

  1. IRA style calls for the use of hyphens, rather than parentheses, slashes, periods, or commas, to set off the area code: 302-731-1600, ext. 319
  2. IRA’s 800 number works only in the United States and Canada; for items that will reach an overseas audience as well, be sure to include an alternate (302) number.
  3. Do not include the code 011 when listing international telephone numbers. Use of the plus sign (+) before international telephone numbers is encouraged as a reminder to the reader that a country code will be required for that call. No blank space appears between plus sign and number (+67, not + 67).
  4. The IRA standard abbreviation of telephone is tel., not phone.
  5. When the words e-mail, tel., or fax are included in an address or contact line, they should not be followed by a colon. Thus, 800 Barksdale Rd., Newark, DE 19714-8139; tel. 302-731-1600, ext. 292; fax 302-368-2449; e-mail publications@reading.org (not tel.:, fax:, or e-mail:)

television / TV
Use the full spelling wherever possible.

tenses
For journals, research should be expressed in past tense (e.g., Rosenblatt (1977) stated) per APA 5th, 2.06 (p. 42). For books, research should be expressed in present tense (e.g., Rosenblatt (1977) states) per CMS 15th, 5.116 (p. 177, see second example).

TESOL = subject (teaching of English to speakers of other languages), or group (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages)

tests

  • Titles of tests follow standard rules of capitalization of titles but are not underlined or italicized.
  • Except for noting year or edition, IRA authors and editors should not cite tests in the text of a book or article nor list them in the reference list.

test takers (n.)

 

test-taking (hyphenate as adjective preceding its noun, as in the phrase test-taking strategies)

text-based (hyphenate as adjective preceding noun; otherwise open)

text-to-self connection, text-to-text connection, text-to-world connection

thank-you (hyphenate as adjective preceding noun; otherwise open compound, no hyphen)

that / which (see which / that)

think aloud (v.)

think-aloud (n. or adj.)

Thinking Classroom/Peremena = TC/P

Third World
The term “Third World” has fallen out of favor and should be avoided in most contexts. Use “developing countries” instead.

thought-provoking (adj.)

tie-in (adj., n.)

Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3 (RTI levels)

time, duration

  • Noun and adverb forms are not hyphenated: The test lasted 20 minutes.
  • Adjective forms preceding the noun are hyphenated: We administered a 20-minute test.

time-consuming

Time For Kids

time frame

timeline (not time line)

Time magazine, or Time

time of day

  1. When using the indicators a.m. and p.m., note that periods are required (with no space after the first period) and that letters should appear in lowercase or in small capitals, not in regular capitals.
  2. When using numerals with a.m. and p.m., use full form (i.e., 8:00 a.m., not 8 a.m.).
  3. Beware of redundancy: Say, "tomorrow at 8:00 a.m.," or "tomorrow morning at 8:00," rather than the redundant "tomorrow morning at 8:00 a.m."

timepoint

timetable

Title I (note Roman numeral)

title case
This term refers to a style of capitalization that is applied to the titles of works. For a description of IRA's title case, see the entry that follows.

titles of works: capitalization

  1. Capitalize the first word. Also capitalize the first word after a colon, including those words listed in point 3.
  2. Capitalize all nouns, pronouns, verbs, and adverbs. Capitalize all adjectives, conjunctions, and prepositions except those listed in point 3.
  3. Except as first word or first after a colon (see point 1, above), lowercase all articles (a, an, the), all coordinating conjunctions (and, or, but), and all prepositions of three letters or fewer. In keeping with APA style, prepositions of four letters or more should be capitalized (with, from, into, over, etc.). See APA 6th, 4.15

titles of works: punctuation

  1. Titles of most* complete works are printed in italics but with no quotation marks: Books, journals, monographs or studies, brochures, magazines, newspapers, movies, long musical compositions (album, compact disc, symphony, opera), paintings, sculptures, television series. Examples: The Reading Teacher; Pen in Hand: Children Become Writers; Reading Today. Acronyms of works whose titles are italicized should themselves be italicized (e.g., RT, JAAL, TMPR).

    *Note the following exceptions: titles of tests (e.g., Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), software (Microsoft Word), and book series (e.g., the IRA-NRC Literacy Studies Series), which follow standard rules for capitalization of titles but are not italicized.
  2. Titles of most* works that are normally published as part of a larger work should be printed with quotation marks but no italics: stories, essays, articles, poems, songs, episodes, chapters, papers, conference presentations. Examples: Twain's “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County,”“The Raven,” by Edgar Allan Poe, “The Star-Spangled Banner,” “A Qualitative Examination of Distractors in an Urban Sixth-Grade Classroom.”

    * Note titles of fairy tales, myths, and other “generic” short works (i.e., those that exist in many different versions or renditions) are exceptions, unless a specific edition or translation is being cited: Little Red Riding Hood, the Three Little Pigs, the Labors of Hercules, the Gilgamesh Epic, Genesis, the Nativity.

  3. In text or reference lists, use a colon to separate a subtitle from a title. Note as an exception to this rule: When a title or subtitle ends with a question mark or an exclamation point, no other punctuation follows (CMS 15th, 8.173, 17.53). Example:
      Glen, P. (1990). It's not my department! How to get the service you want, exactly the way you want it! New York: William Morrow.

titles and short titles of works: distinguishing topics from titles

Examples:

  • The Association has participated actively in the movement to establish standards for the English language arts in U.S. schools. One tangible result of this effort was publication of Standards for the English Language Arts.
  • In the months since its first release, Standards has proved invaluable for school administrators and policymakers.... (the book)
  • In the months since their first release, the IRA standards have proved invaluable for school administrators and policymakers.... (the standards themselves)

to-do list

tool bag

totaled

totaling

toward / towards
There is no semantic difference between toward and towards, which are variant spellings of the same word. Although towards seems to dominate in the UK and Commonwealth, toward is the prevailing form in the U.S. and the preferred spelling in our dictionaries. IRA standard is toward. (See spelling.)

trade book
WNWD (2007) lists this compound as two words. The closed form, tradebook, should be considered nonstandard.

trademarks / trade names

  • Capitalize trade names whenever they appear. According to CMS 15th, 8.162, “The symbols ® and ™ . . . need not appear.”
  • Do not use trade names as common terms: refer to “a tissue” instead of “a kleenex” and “to photocopy” rather than “to xerox.”

transactional theory (not capitalized)

 

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol = TCP/IP

trial and error (n.)

trial-and-error (adjective preceding noun)

T-shirt

t-test (n. according to m-w.com; note that hyphenated noun is a change from previous style guide entry)

t-test results (adjective preceding noun)

Tukey's post-hoc test

turn around (v.)

turn-around (adj.)

turnaround (n.)

turn-taking (n., adj.)

TV
Use television instead.

21st-century (adj.)

twofold (adj.)

typeface

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