Style Guide: F

5 Ws and H

face-to-face (hyphenated as adjective preceding its noun; otherwise open, with no hyphens)

faculty (n; collective noun, implies a group)

fairy tale
WNWD lists this as an open compound (two words). Authors and editors of IRA materials should use this form, rather than the closed fairytale.

fan-fiction (adj.)

FAQ = frequently asked question(s)

faraway

far-off

fast-forward (v.)

fax (as a verb)
Use of fax as a verb ("Fax me the details by Friday") is acceptable in all but the most formal writing.

fax / Fax
Use the initial-capped Fax in column style only, that is, when capitalized Tel. and E-mail would also be appropriate. In running text, use fax. Do not use all capitals (FAX).

When the words e-mail, tel., or fax are included in an address or contact line, they should be followed by a semicolon rather than by a colon. Thus, 800 Barksdale Rd., Newark, DE 19714-8139; tel. 302-731-1600, ext. 292; fax 302-368-2449; e-mail publications@reading.org (not tel.:, fax:, or e-mail:)

federal

federal budget

federal government

feedback

feel bad / feel badly
Although some authorities disagree, most consider “to feel badly” a hypercorrect, nonstandard usage in such sentences as “I feel bad/badly about your accident.” Association authors and editors are advised to use “to feel bad” instead.

few / little
Use few to describe items that can be counted. Thus, “Few books appeared on the shelves.”

Use little to describe a mass or quantity that cannot be counted. Thus “The classroom contained little reading material.”

fewer / less
Use fewer to describe items that can be counted. Thus, “Fewer children were enrolled in the program, so fewer books were needed.”

Use less to describe a mass or quantity that cannot be counted. Thus “The classroom contained less reading material than one would expect.”

field notes

field studies

field trip

fieldwork

Figure/figure

  • a figure, the figure on page 4 (generic)
  • the Figure (if only one appears in book, chapter, article, etc., references to it are capped)
  • Figure 1 (as title, with numeral)
  • Figures 2A and 2B

Figures/Tables

Is it a figure or a table?

APA 6th, p.125

“Tables usually show numerical values or textual information arranged in columns and rows.  A figure may be a chart, a graph, a photograph, a drawing, or any other illustration or nontextual depiction.”

______________________________

Whether it’s a figure or a table depends primarily on one thing: author intent. Is it data for the reader to take away from the text, or is it an illustration to enhance a reader’s understanding of the text? Data = table; illustration = figure. But here’s where it gets tricky: Data are not always numbers, and illustrations are not always photographs/scans/drawings/charts. You must understand the author’s intent in providing the element in order to determine whether it’s data (a table) or an illustration (a figure). Therefore, always begin your assessment of the element by carefully reviewing the text callout. Consider the following examples.

We are often asked how many books are needed for a good classroom library. Table 6 illustrates there is no readily agreed upon formula for an adequate number of books in a classroom library.

Table 6. Recommendations for Number of Books in Classroom Libraries

Number of Books per Student Total Collection Size
  • 7 (IRA, 1999)
  • 8 (Fractor et al., 1993)
  • 10–12 (Kelley & Clausen-Grace, 2007)
  • 200–1,000 plus (Routman, 2003)
  • 300–600 (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001)
  • 700–750 for all primary grades and 400 for upper grades (Allington & Cunningham, 2007)
  • 1,500–2,000 (Reutzel & Fawson, 2002)

A table presents data in columns and rows, although the data is not always numerical (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. Sample Table Presenting Numerical and Textual Information

Number of Books per Student Total Collection Size
  • 7 (IRA, 1999)
  • 8 (Fractor et al., 1993)
  • 10–12 (Kelley & Clausen-Grace, 2007)
  • 200–1,000 plus (Routman, 2003)
  • 300–600 (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001)
  • 700–750 for all primary grades and 400 for upper grades (Allington & Cunningham, 2007)
  • 1,500–2,000 (Reutzel & Fawson, 2002)

Note that the same information is presented first as a table then as a figure, depending on the author’s intent per the text callout. In the first example, the reader is being supplied with data to take away from the text, while in the second example, the reader is being provided with an “illustration” of what a table is—in this case, it isn’t the information in the columns and rows that the reader needs but rather a visual that is important for the reader’s understanding of the text.

Common word-based tables in IRA publications include lists (e.g., recommended resources, procedures). These often provide descriptive rather than comparative information in a one-column, one-row format.

Reading text sets (see Table 4 for resources on text sets) on a particular topic can help students understand that texts are never neutral and that they are constructed by particular people with particular goals and motivations.

Table 4. Resources to Learn More About Text Sets

Harste, J.C., Leland, C., Lewison, M., Ociepka, A., & Vasquez, V. (2000). Supporting critical conversations in classrooms. In K.M. Pierce (Ed.), Adventuring with books: A booklist for pre-K–grade 6 (12th ed., pp. 507–512). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Leland, C., Harste, J.C., Ociepka, A., Lewison, M., & Vasquez, V. (1999). Exploring critical literacy: You can hear a pin drop. Language Arts, 77(1), 70–77.

Short, K.G., Harste, J.C., & Burke, C.L. (1996). Creating classrooms for authors and inquirers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Text-based figures in IRA publications can be just as confusing for editors as text-based tables. Examples include sample worksheets or rubrics that a teacher uses in the classroom. This gets confusing when, instead of providing us with a scanned sheet as an illustration, the author provides us with the text arranged in rows and columns, making us question whether it’s really a figure or a table. Again, look at author intent. Is it data for the reader or a visual to enhance the reader’s understanding of text? Consider the following examples.

Session 2 involves revisiting the book for a second time, this time focusing on discussing the storyline of the book as represented by the illustrations. During this session, Lee had the children work with a partner to fill out a response prompt sheet (see Figure 9).

Figure 9. Response Prompt Sheet

Why do you think people should or should not read White Wash? What questions do you have about this story?
What surprised you about this book? Write one or two writing topics from your own life that connect with this story.
Write one or two statements from someone whose perspective is represented in this book. Write one or two statements from someone whose perspective is not represented in the book.

Session 2 involves revisiting the book for a second time, this time focusing on discussing the storyline of the book as represented by the illustrations. During this session, Lee had the children work with a partner to fill out a response prompt sheet (see Figure 9).

Figure 9. Completed Response Prompt Sheet

Why do you think people should or should not read White Wash?

  • It shows that there are some people that do some really bad things.
  • You should read it because it teaches you to stick up for others. It has kid power in it!

What questions do you have about this story?

  • If the girl were white, would the Hawks be mean to her?
  • Why did she stay in her room for so long?

What surprised you about this book?

  • That the bad people would paint her face white.
  • I was surprised that they let go of the brother first.
  • Everything!

Write one or two writing topics from your own life that connect with this story.

  • My brother is always mean to me and beats me up.
  • When I got stitches on my chin, I looked like I had a beard. I had to go to school like that.
  • Being mad

But, change the author intent, text callout, and presentation of the same information just a bit, and we have a table.

Lee had the children work with a partner to fill out a response prompt sheet; student responses show great variation in comprehension levels (see Table 1).

Table 1. Response Prompt Results

Prompt Student Responses

Why do you think people should or should not read White Wash?

  • It shows that there are some people that do some really bad things.
  • You should read it because it teaches you to stick up for others. It has kid power in it!

What questions do you have about this story?

  • If the girl were white, would the Hawks be mean to her?
  • Why did she stay in her room for so long?

What surprised you about this book?

  • That the bad people would paint her face white.
  • I was surprised that they let go of the brother first.
  • Everything!

Write one or two writing topics from your own life that connect with this story.

  • My brother is always mean to me and beats me up.
  • When I got stitches on my chin, I looked like I had a beard. I had to go to school like that.
  • Being mad

Note that in reprints, we run figures/tables as originally labeled, regardless of whether the labeling is correct.

fill-in-the-blanks (adj.)

filmmaker

filmmaking

fingerprint

firewall

first-grade / first grade

  1. As an adjective preceding the noun it modifies, first-grade is hyphenated. Thus, “a first-grade student”, “a fifth-grade classroom”, “third- and fourth-grade mathematics”
  2. As a noun, first grade is not hyphenated. Thus, “She teaches first and second grade.”

first grader (n.)
As a noun equivalent of “a student in first grade,” first grader is not hyphenated: “Our sample included 28 second graders and 28 fourth graders.”

the First-Grade Studies

firsthand

First Nations (see also indigenous peoples)

first, second, third..., (not firstly, secondly...)

Fiscal years = FY2001, FY2002

flashcard

Flesch readability formula

flier (preferred over flyer)

flipchart

Florida Reading Association = FRA

flowchart

focused

focusing

folk art

folk dance

folklore

folk song

folk tale
WNWD lists this as an open compound. Authors and editors of IRA materials should use the open form, rather than the closed folktale.

follow up (v.)
[Note: up is not redundant but acts as a particle to give the verb phrase a special, idiomatic meaning, as “to continue toward completion.”]

follow-up (n. or adj.)

foreword
Capitalize foreword if the word is used as the name of a part of a specific book (e.g., “In her Foreword to the volume, Alvermann states... ”). Otherwise, lowercase (e.g., “Donna Alvermann would not contribute a foreword to a book whose methodology was suspect.”). See book parts or sections.

formulas (not formulae)

a forum, the forum

forward (adv.)

FRA = Florida Reading Association

fragment-completion task

Frayer Model

free and reduced-price lunch (not reduced lunch)

frequently asked questions = FAQ

Fry readability graph

full time (n. or adv.): She works full time.

full-time (adjective preceding the noun): Teaching is a full-time occupation.

fun
Use of fun as an adjective (e.g., “a fun activity”) is colloquial and should be avoided except in informal contexts.

fundraiser, fundraising
In February 2002 the Style Guide subcommittee voted to adopt the closed forms fundraiser and fundraising as standard. This change differs from m-w.com.

FY2001, FY2002 = fiscal years

Home| About IRA| Contact Us| Help| Privacy & Security| Terms of Use

© 1996–2014 International Reading Association. All rights reserved.