Abbreviations

General rules (APA 6, 4.22–4.30)

  1. Use abbreviations sparingly, especially in running text. Abbreviations are much more common in parentheses, tables, figures, and other material set apart from running text. APA section 4.22 provides an excellent discussion of when to abbreviate.
  2. Scientific and technical writing (e.g., reports of research) makes more liberal use of abbreviations than does writing in the humanities. Because the topics of reading and education have strong roots in both traditions, authors and editors are often called on to make judgments about which style or genre a given piece of writing should employ. Be consistent in applying the style you choose.
  3. Use periods with initials of names and with most abbreviations that appear frequently in text matter and in reference lists. Omit periods in postal addresses, state abbreviations, most acronyms, and most units of measurement (in. = inch is an exception). For more detailed info. on punctuation, capitalization, units of measurement, and statistical abbreviations not listed here, see APA 4.22–4.30.

Australian states and territories

ACT Australian Capital Territory
NSW New South Wales
NT Northern Territory
QLD Queensland
SA South Australia
TAS Tasmania
VIC Victoria
WA Western Australia

Canadian provinces

AB Alberta
BC British Columbia
MB Manitoba
NB New Brunswick
NF Newfoundland
NT Northwest Territories
NS Nova Scotia
NU Nunavut
ON Ontario
PE Prince Edward Island
QC Quebec
SK Saskatchewan
YT Yukon Territory

In text matter

Relatively few abbreviations are accepted for regular use in text. These include the following (note the use of periods in all of these):

A.D. Anno Domini (the year of the Lord -- of the Common Era)
a.m. ante meridiem (morning)
B.C. before Christ
B.C.E. before the Common Era (alt. to B.C.)
c. circa (about)
C.E. of the Common Era (alt. to A.D.)
Dr. Doctor
Jr. Junior
Mr. Mister
Mrs. Mrs.
Ms. Ms.
p.m. p.m. post meridiem (afternoon, evening, night)
St. Saint
U.S. takes a period when used as an adjective in text and parentheses

U.S. states and territories

AL
AK
AS
AZ
AR
CA
CO
CT
DE
DC
FM
FL
GA
GU
HI
ID
IL
IN
IA
KS
KY
LA
ME
MH
MD
MA
MI
MN
MS
MO
Alabama
Alaska
American Samoa
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Federated States of Micronesia
Florida
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Marshall Islands
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
MT
NE
NV
NH
NJ
NM
NY
NC
ND
MP
OH
OK
OR
PW
PA
PR
RI
SC
SD
TN
TX
UT
VT
VI
VA
WA
WV
WI
WY
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Northern Mariana Islands
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Palau
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virgin Islands
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

Standard forms

1st
2nd
37th
acct
addr
adj
admin
adv
affil
alt
a.m.
AM

appl
apt
assoc
assn
attn
ave
awd
BA
bd
Bd of Ed
bf
bldg
c.
cf.
chair

chap
cent
cm
co
comm

conf
cons
conj
contd
coop
corp
cu
curr
cust
db
dB
DDS
dem
dept
dev
dir
dist
distr
div
dlr
Dr.
8th
E
econ

ed.
EdD
educ
e.g.,
elem
Engl
equip
esq
est

et al.
etc.
exam
exp
ext.
1st
4th
5th
fax
fl
FM

FPO
Fr
fr
Ft
ft
fwd
g
gen
Ger
gov
govt
grad
hb
HD
Hon
hosp
hqtrs
HS
hwy
i.e.,
in.
inc
ind

info
inst
instr

intl
ISD

Ital
jct
Jr.
jrnl
K
kg
km
kph
kW
L
lab
Lat
lc
lg
libr
LLD
loc
lt
ltd
first
second
thirty-seventh, etc.
account
address
adjective
administration
adverb
affiliate
alternate
morning
amp. modulation
(radio)
application, applicant
apartment
association
associate
attention
avenue
award
Bachelor of Arts
board
Board of Education
boldface
building
circa (about)
compare
chairman,
chairperson
chapter
century
centimeter
company
commission,
community
conference
consolidated
conjunction
continued
cooperative
corporation
cubic
curriculum
customer
database
decibel
Doctor of Dentistry
democratic
department
development
director
district
distributor
division
dealer
drive, doctor
eighth
east, eastern
economy,
economics
edition, editor
Doctor of Education
education
for example,
elementary
English
equipment
esquire
estimate,
established
and others
and so forth
examination
expiration, expires
extension (not X)
first
fourth
fifth
facsimile
floor
freq. modulation
(radio)
Fleet Post Office
French, Father
franc
Fort
foot
forward
grams
general
German
governor
government
graduate
hardbound
high-definition
Honorable
hospital
headquarters
high school
highway
that is,
inch
incorporated
independent,
industrial
information
institute
instructor,
instruction
international
Independent School
District
Italian, italic
junction
Junior
journal
kindergarten
kilograms
kilometer
kilometers per hour
kilowatt
liter
laboratory
Latin
lowercase
large
library
Doctor of Letters
location, local
lieutenant
limited
m
MA
mbr
mbrshp
MD
med
metro
mfg
mfr
mg
mgmt
mgr
mid
min
misc
mktg
ml
mm
mph
Mr.
Mrs.
Ms.
MS
MS
Mt
mtg
mus
9th
n
N
natl
nav

NE

no.
NW

ofc
org
oz
p.
pb
pharm
PhD
phys

pic
pkwy
pl
plz
p.m.

PO
pp.
ppm
prep
pres
prodn
proj
pron
prop
psych
pt
pub
publr
purch

pvt
qtr
qty
rd
ref
Rep

rept
resv
rev
rm
RR

rt
2nd
6th
Sch Bd
7th
sci
SD
SE

sec
sect
secy
sen
sgt
sm
Sp
sq
Sr.

Sra.
St
sta
ste
subscr

supt
svc
SW

sys
3rd
10th
tel
trans.
tpke
TV
twp
UHF

univ
urb
U.S.
USA
USPS

UV
VHF

vi
VMD

vol.
vs.
vt
W
wifi
meters
Master of Arts
member
membership
Doctor of Medicine
medium
metropolitan
manufacturing
manufacturer
milligram
management
manager
middle
minute(s)
miscellaneous
marketing
milliliters
millimeters
miles per hour
Mister
Mistress
Ms.
middle school
Master of Science
Mount
meeting
museum, music
ninth
noun
north, northern
national
navigation,
navigator
Northeast,
northeastern
number
Northwest,
northwestern
office
organization
ounce, ounces
page
paperback
pharmacy
Doctor of Philosophy
physician, physics,
physical
picture
parkway
place
plaza
afternoon, evening,
night
Post Office
pages
parts per million
preposition
president
production
project
pronoun
proprietor, property
psychology
pint, point, part
public, publication
publisher
purchase,
purchasing
private
quarter
quantity
road
reference
Representative,
Republic
report
reserve
revised
room
Rural Route,
railroad
route
second
sixth
School Board
seventh
science
School District
Southeast,
southeastern
second
sector, section
secretary
senator
sergeant
small
Spanish
square
Senior, Señor,
Sister
Señora
Street, Saint
station
suite
subscription,
subscriber
superintendent
service
Southwest,
southwestern
system
third
tenth
telephone
translator
turnpike
television
township
Ultra high frequency
(television)
university
urban
United States (adj)
United States (noun)
United States Postal
Service
Ultraviolet
very high frequency
(television)
intransitive verb
Doctor of Veterinary
Medicine
volume
versus
transitive verb
West, western
wireless fios

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